White Coat Adherence Occurs in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Receiving Intervention to Improve Insulin Pump Adherence Behaviors

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To assess the occurrence of white coat adherence, defined as an increase in adherence to treatment regimens prior to a study appointment, in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using insulin pumps and participating in a randomized adherence intervention trial.


Blood glucose monitoring (BGM) readings, carbohydrate inputs, and insulin boluses delivered were downloaded from the insulin pumps of adolescents, aged 10-18 years, at 3 consecutive T1D study visits. Linear mixed models were used to analyze patterns of BGM, carbohydrate inputs, and insulin boluses delivered in patients who had 40 consecutive days of data stored in their insulin pumps prior to the study visit.


Stratified linear mixed models revealed that adolescents randomized to the Tailored Feedback Intervention group increased their blood glucose monitoring (P < .01), carbohydrate inputs (P < .0001), and insulin bolusing (P < .0001) prior to study appointments. In contrast, white coat adherence did not occur in adolescents randomized to the Treatment as Usual group (Ps > .42).


White coat adherence may occur in adolescents participating in clinical trials. Meter and insulin pump data downloads representing the 1- to 2-week period prior to a study visit are likely to overestimate actual adherence during the time frame between study visits.

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