Mycosis fungoides two decades after exposure to sulphur mustard: a follow-up of 1100 victims

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Sulphur mustard (SM) is an alkylating chemical warfare agent which causes acute and chronic injuries to the eyes, skin, lung and respiratory tract.


We aimed to investigate the relationship between SM poisoning and Mycosis fungoides (MF) as a late consequence.

Material and Methods

In this retrospective study, the medical files of 1100 Iranian veterans confirmed to have exposure to SM agent during the Iraq–Iran war of the 1980s were reviewed.


All 10 cases with MF were confirmed by clinical and histopathological examinations. The mean age of the studied subjects was 43.3 ± 9.8 (years). In comparison to MF incidence rate in Iranian general population (0.39/100 000 person-years), we found an incidence rate of 0.799/100 000 person-years for MF among those who had short-term exposure to SM. The most common sites for SM lesions were flexural and thin skin areas. The main limitation was the retrospective design.


This study indicates that the risk of MF in those exposed to SM may increase over time. Therefore, their follow-up is recommended.

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