Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Rosa canina fruit extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The results showed oral administration of Rosa canina fruit extract significantly ameliorated the high levels of blood glucose compared with the control group. Serum triglyceride levels significantly decreased by the administration of Rosa canina extract compared with control. Histopathological examinations showed that the Rosa canina extract improved islets necrotic and regenerated pancreatic islet cells. Rosa canina extract has the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.