This study compared the possible protective effects of silymarin and melatonin against gentamicin (GEN)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats were allocated to 6 groups: Group I, control group; Groups II and III, administered with silymarin or melatonin; Group IV, injected with GEN; and Groups V and VI, administered with silymarin or melatonin, and then injected with GEN. Compared with the rats in the control group, all rats injected with GEN significantly presented elevated levels of serum creatinine and urea that was accompanied by an increase in relative kidney weight, increase in renal reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and reduction in renal glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Silymarin and melatonin pretreatment significantly lowered the elevated serum urea and creatinine concentration, kidney weight, and renal ROS and MDA levels. In addition, silymarin and melatonin significantly enhanced renal GSH level and SOD activity. This study indicates that silymarin and melatonin can attenuate renal injury in rats treated with GEN possibly by reducing the ROS level.