Changes in Soft Tissue Profile After Orthodontic Treatment With and Without Extraction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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ObjectiveThe objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the soft tissue changes in adult orthodontic patients who received extraction treatment in comparison to their counterparts who received nonextraction orthodontic treatment.MethodsElectronic databases (CENTRAL–Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, EBESCOhost, LILACS, and Google Scholar) were searched up to March 2015. Handsearching was performed too. The selection process included controlled trials (prospective or retrospective and randomized or nonrandomized) on adult patients receiving orthodontic extraction treatment compared within the same study to a group treated without extraction. The outcomes of interest were the changes in linear and angular cephalometric measurements specific for soft tissue profile. Studies which fulfilled the selection criteria were retrieved. They were assessed for methodological quality based on a validated checklist. Studies of moderate to high quality were included.ResultsOf the nine full texts which fulfilled the selection criteria, 5 were eligible for the quantitative analysis; they scored a moderate quality. Meta-analysis showed a significant increase regarding the nasolabial angle, upper lip thickness, labrale superioris to E-Line, and labrale inferioris to E-line in the extraction group, suggesting the flattening of the profile following extraction treatment.ConclusionA significant retraction of the lips and an increase in the nasolabial angle are associated with extraction protocols, but the degree to which these changes are considered detrimental/beneficial to the profile could be affected by different factors. Since these finding are based on studies of moderate quality, future research with well-conducted methodologies are highly recommended.HighlightsMeta-analysis was conducted to assess the soft tissue changes in extraction vs nonextraction orthodontic treatment.Of 9 full texts which fulfilled the selection criteria, 5 were eligible for the quantitative analysis.Significant changes in the nasolabial angle, upper lip thickness, and upper and lower lip position was found in the extraction group.Extraction showed more profile flattening in comparison to nonextraction orthodontic treatment.

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