Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a diversity of roles in plants. In recent years, a role for NADPH oxidase-derived ROS during cell growth and development has been discovered in a number of plant model systems. These studies indicate that ROS are required for cell expansion during the morphogenesis of organs such as roots and leaves. Furthermore, there is evidence that ROS are required for root hair growth where they control the activity of calcium channels required for polar growth. The role of ROS in the control of root hair growth is reviewed here and results are highlighted that may provide insight into the mechanism of plant cell growth in general.