Fluxes in central carbohydrate metabolism of source leaves in a fructan-storing C: rapid turnover and futile cycling of sucrose in continuous light under contrasted nitrogen nutrition status3: rapid turnover and futile cycling of sucrose in continuous light under contrasted nitrogen nutrition status grass: rapid turnover and futile cycling of sucrose in continuous light under contrasted nitrogen nutrition status

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Abstract

This work assessed the central carbohydrate metabolism of actively photosynthesizing leaf blades of a C3 grass (Lolium perenne L.). The study used dynamic 13C labelling of plants growing in continuous light with contrasting supplies of nitrogen (‘low N’ and ‘high N’) and mathematical analysis of the tracer data with a four-pool compartmental model to estimate rates of: (i) sucrose synthesis from current assimilation; (ii) sucrose export/use; (iii) sucrose hydrolysis (to glucose and fructose) and resynthesis; and (iv) fructan synthesis and sucrose resynthesis from fructan metabolism. The contents of sucrose, fructan, glucose, and fructose were almost constant in both treatments. Labelling demonstrated that all carbohydrate pools were turned over. This indicated a system in metabolic steady state with equal rates of synthesis and degradation/consumption of the individual pools. Fructan content was enhanced by nitrogen deficiency (55 and 26% of dry mass at low and high N, respectively). Sucrose content was lower in nitrogen-deficient leaves (2.7 versus 6.7%). Glucose and fructose contents were always low (<1.5%). Interconversions between sucrose, glucose, and fructose were rapid (with half-lives of individual pools ranging between 0.3 and 0.8 h). Futile cycling of sucrose through sucrose hydrolysis (67 and 56% of sucrose at low and high N, respectively) and fructan metabolism (19 and 20%, respectively) was substantial but seemed to have no detrimental effect on the relative growth rate and carbon-use efficiency of these plants. The main effect of nitrogen deficiency on carbohydrate metabolism was to increase the half-life of the fructan pool from 27 to 62 h and to effectively double its size.

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