Chilling and frost tolerance inMiscanthusandSaccharumgenotypes bred for cool temperate climates

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Abstract

Miscanthushybrids are leading candidates for bioenergy feedstocks in mid to high latitudes of North America and Eurasia, due to high productivity associated with the C4 photosynthetic pathway and their tolerance of cooler conditions. However, as C4 plants, they may lack tolerance of chilling conditions (0-10 °C) and frost, particularly when compared with candidate C3 crops at high latitudes. In higher latitudes, cold tolerance is particularly important if the feedstock is to utilize fully the long, early-season days of May and June. Here, leaf gas exchange and fluorescence are used to assess chilling tolerance of photosynthesis in fiveMiscanthushybrids bred for cold tolerance, a complexSaccharumhybrid (energycane), and an upland sugarcane variety with some chilling tolerance. The chilling treatment consisted of transferring warm-grown plants (25/20 °C day/night growth temperatures) to chilling (12/5 °C) conditions for 1 week, followed by assessing recovery after return to warm temperatures. Chilling tolerance was also evaluated in outdoor, spring-grownMiscanthusgenotypes before and after a cold front that was punctuated by a frost event.Miscanthus×giganteuswas found to be the most chilling-tolerant genotype based on its ability to maintain a high net CO2 assimilation rate (A) during chilling, and recoverAto a greater degree following a return to warm conditions. This was associated with increasing its capacity for short-term dark-reversible photoprotective processes (ΦREG) and the proportion of open photosystem II reaction centres (qL) while minimizing photoinactivation (ΦNF). Similarly, in the field,M.×giganteusexhibited a significantly greaterAand pre-dawnFv/Fm after the cold front compared with the other chilling-sensitiveMiscanthushybrids.

Triploid Miscanthus hybrids have superior chilling tolerance across Miscanthus and Saccharum genotypes bred for cool temperate climates.

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