Arabidopsis SYT1 maintains stability of cortical endoplasmic reticulum networks and VAP27-1-enriched endoplasmic reticulum–plasma membrane contact sites

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Abstract

Arabidopsis synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) is localized on the endoplasmic reticulum–plasma membrane (ER–PM) contact sites in leaf and root cells. The ER–PM localization of Arabidopsis SYT1 resembles that of the extended synaptotagmins (E-SYTs) in animal cells. In mammals, E-SYTs have been shown to regulate calcium signaling, lipid transfer, and endocytosis. Arabidopsis SYT1 was reported to be essential for maintaining cell integrity and virus movement. This study provides detailed insight into the subcellular localization of SYT1 and VAP27-1, another ER–PM-tethering protein. SYT1 and VAP27-1 were shown to be localized on distinct ER–PM contact sites. The VAP27-1-enriched ER–PM contact sites (V-EPCSs) were always in contact with the SYT1-enriched ER–PM contact sites (S-EPCSs). The V-EPCSs still existed in the leaf epidermal cells of the SYT1 null mutant; however, they were less stable than those in the wild type. The polygonal networks of cortical ER disassembled and the mobility of VAP27-1 protein on the ER–PM contact sites increased in leaf cells of the SYT1 null mutant. These results suggest that SYT1 is responsible for stabilizing the ER network and V-EPCSs.

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