Stimulatory Effect of Insulin and Epidermal Growth Factor on Activity of Protein Kinase A, Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, and Glycogen Synthase in Skeletal Muscles of Chick Embryos and Chickens

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Abstract

Insulin is able to produce two types of regulatory effects on muscles—metabolic and growth stimulating. Study of the effect of insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6PDH), a starting enzyme of pentosephosphate pathway (PPP), and glycogen synthase (GS), a key enzyme of the glycogen synthesis, has shown that both types of the insulin effects do not arise simultaneously in the course of embryogenesis. The growth-stimulating effect mediated by adenylyl cyclase—cAMP is revealed since the 10th embryonal day. It was established for the first time that insulin could participate in growth stimulation by activating PKA in vivo and in vitro in muscles of the 10–14-day old embryos and the 8–10-day old chickens. The stimulating effect of insulin on G-6PDH activity is revealed since the same embryonal period and gradually increases. Insulin in vivo and in vitro simulates the glycogen synthase activity by increasing its conversion from non-active to active (GS-I) form only in the 15-day old embryos and in chickens. The stimulating effects of insulin and EGF on both G-6PDH activity (in embryos and chickens) and GS (in chickens) was shown to blocked by selective inhibitors of tyrosine kinases, thyrphostin 47 and genestein, in the dose-dependent manner, which indicates involvement of receptor of the tyrosine kinase type in these effects. The complex of the established facts permits concluding that insulin at early embryonal stages stimulates in the chicken muscles the PKA and G-6PDH activities involved in action of this hormone on growth, which is especially pronounced at the stage of myoblast proliferation. Meanwhile, the metabolic insulin effect (stimulation of the glycogen synthase system) appears in the second half of embryonal period and coincides in time with the period of muscle cell differentiation and active muscle contractures.

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