Possibility of the appearance of functional defects in the adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling mechanism (ACSM) of insulin action, which was discovered by the authors earlier [1–3], is studied in skeletal muscles of rats with acute insulin insufficiency produced by streptozotocin diabetes (24 h). This ACSM includes the signaling chain: receptor-tyrosine kinase → Gi-protein → phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase → protein kinase C-zeta → Gs-protein → adenylyl cyclase → protein kinase A. At comparative evaluation of the functional state of individual molecular blocks of ACSM and the entire mechanism as a whole in skeletal muscles of diabetic rats in comparison with control animals, the following facts have been revealed: (1) an increase of the AC basal activity and a decrease of effects of non-hormonal activators of AC (guanine nucleotides, NaF, forskolin); (2) reduction of reactivity of the whole ACSM to insulin (10−8 M, in vitro) and to combined action of the hormone and GIDP (10−6 M); (3) a decrease of the activating action of insulin on key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism—glycogen synthase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDG). It is concluded that insulin insufficiency leads to several disturbances in the insulin ACSM: at the level of its catalytic component—AC, Gs protein and its coupling with AC, as well as to a decrease of regulatory metabolic effects of the hormone. These data indicate a decrease of sensitivity of skeletal muscles of diabetic rats to insulin and an involvement of this hormone in maintenance of functionally active status of the ACSM of insulin signal transduction.