Cytoarchitectonics of hypothalamic area of diencephalon of the sturgeons was studied in serial sections by techniques of Nissl staining and Bielschowski impregnation in Viktorov's modification. The hypothalamus was shown to be the most expanded area of diencephalon and forms its the most ventral part. The hypothalamic area of four studied sturgeons, the hausen, Huso huso L., Kura sturgeon, Acipenser guldenstaedtii persicus n. Kurensis Belyaeff, Caspian sturgeon, Ac. stellatus Pall. and the barbel sturgeon Ac. nudioventris Lov. was found to have similar structure. Eleven nerve structures are identified and described in the hypothalamic area: dorsal, ventral, and caudal periventricular zones, rostral and dorsal hypothalamic nuclei, ventral and ventrolateral hypothalamic nuclei, diffuse and central nuclei of the inferior lobes, nucleus of the vascular sac, and mammillary nucleus. Peculiarities and common features of organization of four major parts of hypothalamus of the sturgeons are considered in comparison with those of other ray-finned fish. The performed analysis indicates a high level of development of hypothalamus of the sturgeons.