The work presents results of study of role of heptapeptide Selank—an anxiolytic from group of biologically active peptides—in compensation of disturbed psychic and homeostatic functions in monkeys. New data have been obtained which indicate that an intranasal administration of Selank produces long-term changes of the monkey behavior disturbed during neurosis: elimination of fear and aggression and an increase of explorative activity as well as facilitation of handling reactions and communicational relations. It has been established that on the background of the Selank there occurs a long compensation of disturbed psychic functions (processes of memory) and of homeostatic parameters. It has been shown that unlike the earlier studied neurohormones (thyroliberin and ACTH4−10), the antistress Selank effects do not depend on the type of neurotic disturbances and have long-term compensatory character. Comparison of the data obtained on monkeys with results of similar studies on the more low-organized mammals (rodents) allow suggesting that the new peptide preparation Selank is a promising agent for correction of various psychoemotional disturbances (alarm-and depression-like disorders).