To study character of effect of apoptotic signal proteins on activities of neurosecretory cells and neurons of rat hypothalamus, pharmacological inhibitors of proapoptotic protein p53 Pifithrin-α and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 HA14-1 were injected into hypothalamus. Activation of vasopressinergic neurosecretory cells at administration of the blocker Bcl-2 HA14-1 was shown: there were observed an increase of vasopressin mRNA in neurons of hypothalamic supraoptical and paraventricular nuclei, a decrease of the immunoreactive vasopressin content in posterior pituitary, and reduction of diuresis. Inactivation of p53 inhibited release of vasopressin from hypothalamus cell bodies, which is indicated by an elevated content of immunoreactive vasopressin in neurosecretory cell bodies with its unchanged synthesis, a decrease of the neurohormone content in the posterior pituitary, and an increase of diuresis rate. Activation of vasopressinergic neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus was also shown. Administration of the blocker of Bcl-2 has been revealed to decrease functional activity both of dopaminergic neurons (zona incerta) and of dopaminergic neurosecretory cells (arcuate nucleus), in which a decrease of the tyrosine hydroxylase content was observed. The p53 inactivation also led to a decrease of activity of dopaminergic neurosecretory cells of arcuate nucleus, whereas activity of the neurons of zona incerta did not change. Thus, it has been shown that a change of the apoptotic protein content in vasopressinergic and dopaminergic neurons and neurosecretory cells leads to a change of their functional activity, the character and possibly mechanisms of effects of apoptotic proteins on activities of vasopressin-and dopaminergic cells being different.