Evolutionary physiology as independent direction of physiology was formed in the XX century and was rapidly developing in its second half. To evaluate some tendencies of this process, we analyzed publications in Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology, one of the leading specialized periodicals on this problem. Analysis of works published for 4 decades has shown that the majority of papers deals with study of evolution of function of the nervous system (40–60 papers per year), less papers concern study of functions of sensory and visceral systems (20–30 per year). Among the used method, the most widely spread is the comparative-physiological method. By the end of the 1990s the number of works with use of methods of embryophysiology decreased. In the performed studies, predominant are physiological methods. Use of biochemical methods decreased, while of methods of molecular biology increased. The most often used objects of studies were mammals. By the end of the XX—beginning of the XXI century, in the greater number of papers the object of study has become human, while the number of publications in which experiments were performed on amphibians, reptiles, and birds decreased. More than a half of all works were carried out in St. Petersburg (Leningrad); the number of papers submitted from Moscow institutions gradually decreased, but the number of works from regions of Russia rose. Most studies were performed at institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences and universities, while the number of papers from institutes of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences decreased. For the last few years, several generalizations on evolution of functions and functional evolution have been formulated; handbooks and monographs on problems of evolutional physiology have been published.