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It is unclear how psychosocial working conditions influence future alcohol consumption. Using group-based trajectory modelling, this study aimed to determine: the number of latent alcohol consumption trajectories over 16 years in a representative sample of the Canadian workforce; the association between psychosocial working conditions and longitudinal alcohol consumption; and if the association between psychosocial work factors and longitudinal alcohol consumption differed among men and women.We included 5458 employed adults from the longitudinal Canadian National Population Health Survey. Average daily alcohol consumption was measured every 2 years from 1994 to 2010. Psychosocial work factors were measured in 1994 using the Job Content Questionnaire. Group-based trajectory modelling was used to derive the appropriate number of alcohol behaviour trajectories. The association between psychosocial work factors and alcohol trajectory membership was estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Models were stratified by sex to determine if these associations differed among men and women.Three alcohol consumption trajectories were present: non-drinkers, light drinkers (0.5–1 drinks/day) and moderate drinkers (2–3 drinks/day). Higher workplace physical exertion and lower social support levels were associated with membership in the moderate drinking trajectory. Among men, lower psychological demands and higher physical exertion levels were associated with membership in the moderate drinking trajectory. Among women, lower levels of physical exertion were associated with membership in the light drinking trajectory, and higher psychological demand levels were associated with membership in the moderate drinking trajectory.Our study suggests that workplace physical exertion and psychological demands may be associated with different alcohol consumption trajectories among men and women.