Student characteristics, classroom processes, and student achievement

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A comparison between two different approaches to apportioning variance in posttest achievement scores was made with data on 29 lessons on one social studies topic. One method led to exaggerated estimates of the contribution of student characteristics through ignoring joint contributions of student characteristics and process variables. Comparisons were also made among three different criterion measures in exploring process-product correlations. Residualized achievement scores using, first, the individual student and, second, the class as the statistical unit were used, as well as unadjusted achievement scores. The same set of process variables tended to correlate significantly with all three product measures, though some differences were noted. Relationships among student characteristics, process variables, and student achievement indicated possible teacher expectancy effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

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