Open-space schools: Anticipation of peer interaction and development of cooperative interdependence

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42 same-sex pairs of varied racial composition were randomly selected from 8th graders in each of 2 matched schools, with open- vs closed-space architectural styles. Open-space Ss were more likely to develop cooperative interdependence in a mixed-motive game (a decomposed prisoner's dilemma) and were more inclined to make proximal seating choices indicative of anticipated peer interaction. A Sex by Race by Trial Blocks interaction effect reflected different patterns of responding for males and females. Females of either race learned to cooperate in same-race pairs and to compete in mixed-race pairs. White males learned to cooperate and Black males to compete independent of their partner's race. External scores on Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale were not related to schools but were, as expected, higher for Black than for White students. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

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