Micro Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motors

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This paper reviews recent developments of micro ultrasonic rotary motors using piezoelectric resonant vibrations. Following the historical background, four ultrasonic motors recently developed at Penn State University are introduced; windmill, PZT tube, metal tube, and shear-type motors. Driving principles and motor characteristics are described in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic motors. Motors with 1.5 mm in diameter and 0.8 mN·m in torque have been actually developed.

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