Donor-doped BaTiO3 ceramics (0–0.6 mol% Nb) were investigated during the sintering process at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.4 Pa and at a maximum temperature of 1430°C. The occurring oxygen exchange with the ambient atmosphere was monitored quantitatively by oxygen coulometry. The coincidence between the grain growth behavior and the occurrence of distinct oxygen release peaks during the anomalous grain growth reveals that significant amounts of the donor are incorporated and charge-compensated by electrons only under the conditions of the anomalous grain growth. Quantitative analysis of the coulometric data shows that at a doping level of 0.2 mol% nearly all donors are charge-compensated by electrons. With increasing Nb concentration also Ti vacancies gradually begin to serve for compensation. At 0.5 mol% Nb their influence reaches 70 % of the electronic compensation.