The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of FlexMaster, ProTaper, and RaCe rotary instruments compared with Hedström files for removal of gutta-percha during retreatment. Sixty mandibular premolars with one single straight canal were instrumented with K-type files and filled using cold lateral compaction and sealer. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 15 specimens each. After repreparation with Gates Glidden burs and the test instruments the specimens were cleared. The area of remaining gutta-percha/sealer on the root canal wall was measured from two directions. The RaCe group showed significantly less residual obturation material than FlexMaster and Hedström group (p < 0.05; closed test procedure). There was no difference between ProTaper and all other instruments (p > 0.05). ProTaper and RaCe instruments required significantly less time for retreatment than FlexMaster and Hedström files (p < 0.05). One RaCe file, two ProTaper, and two FlexMaster instruments separated. RaCe cleaned obturated canals more effectively than hand files and FlexMaster files.