This case-control study sought to identify variables predictive of subsequent root canal therapy (RCT) in teeth receiving full coverage restorations. The University of North Carolina School of Dentistry's computerized treatment database was used to identify all patients receiving a single-unit crown on a nonendodontically treated permanent tooth from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2002. These patients then were classified either as cases (those whose crowned teeth received RCT before July 1, 2004) or controls (those whose crowned teeth did not). Computerized data, chart entries, and dental radiographs were examined to determine pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors of interest. In the final multivariable logistic regression model that included 66 cases and 71 controls, younger age (p = 0.005) and greater extent of coronal and root destruction (p = 0.020) remained statistically significant predictors of case status, though many potentially important predictors were unavailable through chart review. Patients could benefit if prospective studies were conducted to identify factors predictive of subsequent endodontic involvement in newly crowned teeth.