The elastic modulus of the restorative material is important in restoring endodontically treated teeth. This study aimed to compare the fracture resistance and failure patterns of 90 mandibular molars restored using resin composites with or without fiber posts, with respect to the number of residual cavity walls. Five restoration types were performed corresponding to different wall defects (groups 1–5). Groups were divided in two subgroups corresponding to the use or absence of fiber posts. Teeth were loaded and resistance of specimens was measured as the axial compressive load to cause fracture and macroscopic fracture patterns were observed. One way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in fracture resistance (p < 0.001). Tukey post hoc test also revealed significant differences between groups as samples restored with fiber posts exhibited mostly restorable fractures. It was concluded that the resistance of endodontically treated mandibular molars restored with composite resins is mainly affected by the number of residual walls. Using fiber-reinforced posts optimized fracture patterns.