Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been found to play a role in inflammation and vascular complications. The receptor for AGE (RAGE) is expressed on many cells and is up-regulated during inflammation. To date, RAGE expression or its correlation with nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κβ) expression has not been demonstrated in inflammatory periapical lesions. In this study, periapical tissue was obtained from 38 patients and processed for RAGE and NF-κβ expression by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Various patient variables were examined as predictors for these novel protein expressions. The results demonstrated a statistically significant positive correlation between the expression of RAGE and NF-κβ (P = .001). When comparing whites and African Americans, a statistically significant difference was noted, with the African American group exhibiting a higher expression of RAGE (analysis of variance, F= 12.746, P = .002). A positive linear correlation of their presence was demonstrated in inflamed periradicular tissues. This study outlines the possible use of these proteins as potential markers for periapical inflammation.