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This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SmearClear (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and EDTA for smear layer removal from root canals of permanent teeth after instrumentation. Thirty extracted human permanent teeth (n = 10) were randomly assigned to the following groups: group 1 = 14.3% EDTA, group 2 = SmearClear, and group 3 = no smear layer removal procedure was undertaken (control). The specimens were submitted to scanning electron microscopy analysis. Magnifications of 200× and 750× were used to evaluate cleaning at the apical, middle, and cervical thirds according to a three-point scoring system. Data were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney U test (5% significance level). Groups 1 and 2 differed significantly from group 3 (p < 0.01). However, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between groups 1 and 2. In conclusion, SmearClear was able to remove the smear layer from the root canals of permanent teeth similarly as 14.3% EDTA, suggesting that both solutions may be indicated for such purpose.