This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of apical periodontitis in 1035 root canal-treated teeth from adult French patients and investigated the influence of the quality of canal fillings and coronal restorations on the periradicular status. Periapical radiographs were used for analyses, and teeth were classified as healthy or diseased according to the periapical index scoring system. Overall, the prevalence of apical periodontitis in root canal-treated teeth was 33%. Only 19% of the teeth had endodontic treatments rated as adequate. The success rate (number of healthy teeth) for cases with adequate endodontic treatment was 91%, which was significantly higher when compared with teeth with inadequate treatment (61%). Teeth with adequate restorations had significantly decreased prevalence of apical periodontitis (29%) as compared with teeth with inadequate restorations (41%). The combination of adequate endodontic treatment and adequate restorations yielded the highest success rate (93.5%). The quality of the endodontic treatment was the most important factor for success, although the quality of the coronal restoration also influenced the treatment outcome.