A Comparative Study of Smear Layer Removal and Erosion in Apical Intraradicular Dentine With Three Irrigating Solutions: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation

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This study compared the efficacy of BioPure MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa, Tulsa, OK), 17% EDTA, and 42% citric acid in endodontic smear layer removal and degree of erosion in the apical third of endodontic canals.


Ninety-six extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomized into four groups (n = 24) and instrumented using System GT nickel-titanium rotary instruments (Dentsply Tulsa, Tulsa, OK). Each canal was irrigated with one of the following solutions: BioPure MTAD, 17% EDTA, 42% citric acid, or 5.25% NaOCl (control). Next, all specimens were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl.


Evaluation by scanning electron microscopy showed no significant differences among test irrigants in removing the smear layer. However, the efficacy of BioPure MTAD and 17% EDTA in removing the smear layer was significantly greater than 5.25% NaOCl (control). The erosive effects of irrigating solutions could not be evaluated.


In conclusion, the protocols used in this study were not sufficient to completely remove the smear layer in the apical third of prepared root canals.

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