Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to have a high positive rate in infected root canals and symptomatic apical periodontitis. It may play an integral role as a potent stimulator of inflammatory cytokines involved in apical lesions. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) has been proven to be the key regulator of bone remodeling. This study investigated P. endodontalis LPS-induced RANKL production and LPS signaling in mouse osteoblasts.Methods
LPS-induced RANKL production in mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells was measured by Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were determined by the blocking test using anti-TLRs antibodies. In addition, specific inhibitors were used to analyze the intracellular signaling pathways. Escherichia coli LPS was used as the control.Results
Both of the anti-TLR2 and anti-TLR4 antibodies significantly (P < .05) inhibited the expression of RANKL from osteoblasts stimulated with P. endodontalis LPS; only anti-TLR2 antibody had a significant (P < .05) inhibitory effect on E. coli LPS signaling. SP600125 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] inhibitor) prevented the up-regulation of RANKL expression in P. endodontalis LPS-infected osteoblasts (P < .05). The inhibitory effect of wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) and PD98059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK]/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] kinase-1/2 [MEK 1/2] inhibitor) were observed in E. coli LPS-treated mouse osteoblasts (P < .05).Conclusions
Results from this study showed that P. endodontalis LPS has the ability to promote the expression of RANKL in mouse osteoblasts, and this induction was mainly through the TLR2/4–JNK signaling pathway, a situation quite different from that of typical bacterial endotoxin (E. coli LPS).