The Impact of Chlorhexidine-based Endodontic Treatment on Periapical Cytokine Expression in Teeth

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Root canal treatment typically involves cleaning and shaping procedures followed by treatment with antibacterial endodontic dressing between appointments and, ultimately, 3-dimensional,hermetic filling. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is effective as an irrigation solution and is used as an endodontic dressing. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of CHX on periapical cytokine expression.


Expression levels of the cytokines interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-17A, IL-10, and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) were assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction immediately after root canal cleaning and 15 days later.


Messenger RNA expression of IL-1β, interferon γ, IL-10, and CCL2/MCP-1 was increased on day 15 in teeth without endodontic dressing. No statistical change was observed in the messenger RNA expression of cytokines when comparing sampling times for teeth that received endodontic dressing.


The results show that CHX application between appointments prevented the increase of both proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines 15 days after the dental procedure.

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