Comparison of the Surface Hardness among 3 Materials Used in an Experimental Apexification Model under Moist and Dry Environments

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Procedures used in single-visit or multiple-visit approaches to apical barrier creation were used with an experimental apexification model to test the surface hardness of 3 materials. The purpose of this study was to examine the microhardness of the materials after setting in moist or dry conditions.


A simulated open apex and periapical environment model was created using polyethylene tubes placed into a porous block filled with phosphate-buffered saline. White ProRoot Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA; Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), EndoSequence Root Repair Material (ESRRM; Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), and Biodentine (BD; Septodont, Louisville, CO) were mixed and placed into the apical 4 mm of the tubes (N = 15). The moist group had a damp cotton pellet above the test materials (mineral trioxide aggregate or ESSRM) with Fuji II LC (GC America, Alsip, IL) sealing the coronal segment. The dry group had gutta-percha placed directly against the test materials with amalgam sealing the coronal segment. After 10 days of storage in 100% humidity at 37°C, samples were sectioned, and microhardness was independently measured at 2 mm and 4 mm from the apical end. Differences were assessed using analysis of variance and a Tukey post hoc test (α = .05).


Analysis of variance analyses showed no significant effect of wet or dry conditions on resultant material hardness. A Tukey post hoc test showed that using ESRRM and BD would not result in a significant difference in hardness, but using MTA would result in statistically significant different hardness values when compared with ESRRM or BD.


Either a moist or dry environment could allow hardening of materials; thus, both methods could be acceptable for clinical treatment procedures.

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