Sealers and Warm Gutta-percha Obturation Techniques

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Warm vertically compacted gutta-percha obturation techniques use root canal sealers that are heated during the obturation. This study aims at investigating the suitability of selected sealers with warm gutta-percha obturation techniques.


The composition of an experimental sealer (Septodont; Saint Maur-des-Fosses, France), MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil), Apexit Plus (Ivoclar, Schaan, Lichtenstein), and AH Plus (Dentsply International, Addlestone, UK) was assessed by scanning electron microscopic and energy-dispersive spectroscopic analysis. The effect of temperature during warm vertical compaction technique was investigated by testing the sealers' properties after 1 minute to 100°C or 37°C. The reaction products after setting were assessed by X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Changes in setting time, flow, and film thickness were determined using ISO 6876 (2012) specifications.


The experimental tricalcium silicate–based sealer and Apexit Plus contained calcium hydroxide peaks after setting, which were absent in MTA Fillapex. The properties of AH Plus and the experimental sealer were modified by heat; the setting time was reduced, and film thickness increased. AH Plus had diminished N-H groups when heated to 100°C for 1 minute. MTA Fillapex, Septodont sealer, and Apexit Plus were unaffected by heat application.


The choice of sealer should be considered when selecting the obturation technique. The Septodont sealer is recommended for obturations using cold laterally condensed gutta-percha, whereas MTA Fillapex and Apexit Plus were suitable with warm gutta-percha obturation techniques.

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