Different Correlation of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 with Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand and Regulatory T Cells in Rat Periapical Lesions

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Abstract

Introduction:

Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) is crucial for regulation of immunity and bone metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the expression of S1P1 in rat periapical lesions and its relationship with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and regulatory T (Treg) cells.

Methods:

Periapical lesions were induced by pulp exposure in the first lower molars of 55 Wistar rats. Thirty rats were killed on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, and their mandibles were harvested for x-ray imaging, micro–computed tomography scanning, histologic observation, immunohistochemistry, enzyme histochemistry, and double immunofluorescence analysis. The remaining 25 rats were killed on days 0, 14, 21, 28, and 35, and mandibles were harvested for flow cytometry.

Results:

The volume and area of the periapical lesions increased from day 0 to day 21 and then remained comparably stable after day 28. S1P1-positive cells were observed in the inflammatory periapical regions; the number of S1P1-positive cells peaked at day 14 and then decreased from day 21 to day 35. The distribution of S1P1-positive cells was positively correlated with the dynamics of RANKL-positive cells but was negatively correlated with that of Treg cells.

Conclusions:

S1P1 expression was differentially correlated with RANKL and Treg cell infiltration in the periapical lesions and is therefore a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of such lesions.

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