Association between Odontogenic Conditions and Maxillary Sinus Disease: A Study Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography

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The maxillary sinus can be affected by dental infections because of its close relationship with upper teeth. This study aimed to assess the most common types of maxillary sinus alterations and to associate them with odontogenic conditions using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images.


CBCT scans of 400 patients showing sinus disease in 1 or both maxillary sinuses were evaluated. Sinus alteration was considered as follows: generalized or localized mucosal thickening (MT), maxillary sinusitis (MS), and retention cysts (RCs). The odontogenic conditions evaluated were inadequate endodontic treatment, periapical lesions, and periodontal bone loss. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.


Sinus diseases were observed in 85.9% of the maxillary sinuses. The most prevalent condition was generalized MT (65.2%) followed by localized MT (24.8%), MS (6.4%), and RCs (3.6%). Generalized MT was more related to males (odds ratio = 1.45, P < .05) and periodontal bone loss (P < .05). Localized MT was associated with periapical lesions (odds ratio = 3.09, P < .05) and showed a close anatomic relationship between teeth and the sinus floor (odds ratio = 2.77, P < .05). There were no statistically significant associations between either MS or RCs and the odontogenic conditions studied.


The most prevalent sinus diseases were the generalized and localized MT, and they were the only ones related to odontogenic conditions (periodontal bone loss and periapical lesions, respectively). We emphasize that CBCT imaging is an appropriate method for evaluating the maxillary sinus findings and their associated odontogenic conditions.

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