The aim of this article was to analyze biocompatibility and bioactivity of new endodontic materials on the basis of nanosynthesized calcium silicates (ALBO-MPCA1 and ALBO-MPCA2) combined with different radiopacifiers in comparison with MTA+.Methods:
Morphology of the samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the pH and ion release analysis were also assessed. Biocompatibility of materials' eluates (24-hour, 7-day, and 21-day) was conducted by using MTT test. Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were used for intraosseous implantation. Four calvarial defects per animal were created and filled with freshly prepared investigated materials.Results:
Samples mostly consisted of agglomerates built up from nanoparticles, preferably spherical and rod-like. There was no significant difference among pH values of materials' eluates after 24 hours (P > .05). The amount of calcium and aluminum ion release decreased, whereas the amount of magnesium and bismuth (ALBO-MPCA1, MTA+) and barium (ALBO-MPCA2) increased during 21-day period. The metabolic activity of cells increased after the extraction time, except in case of undiluted elutes of ALBO-MPCA2 and ALBO-MPCA1 (21-day). Histologic analysis of the samples revealed newly formed bone tissue with moderate inflammation for all investigated materials, which subsided during 90-day period to mild. Both MTA+ and ALBO-MPCA1 were in direct contact with the newly formed bone tissue. After 90 days, statistically significant difference in hard tissue formation was observed in comparison of MTA+ and ALBO-MPCA1 with control group (P < .05).Conclusions:
Experimental materials ALBO-MPCA1 and ALBO-MPCA2 possess both biocompatibility and bioactivity. Because ALBO-MPCA1 provokes favorable biological response, it is especially good candidate for further clinical investigations.