Incidence of Dentinal Defects on the External Apical Root Surface after Instrumentation with WaveOne Reciprocating Files at Different Working Lengths

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The aim of this in vitro study was to identify the formation of dentinal defects on the external apical root surface of teeth instrumented at different working lengths by using WaveOne reciprocating files.


Sixty human single-rooted mandibular premolars were divided into 3 groups (n = 20) according to the file used for instrumentation: WaveOne Small (WOS), premolars presenting mechanical resistance to the penetration of #10 K-file 1 mm short of the apical foramen; WaveOne Primary (WOP), this limit easily reached with #10 K-file; and WaveOne Large (WOL), this limit easily reached with #20 K-file or higher. A closed system and a muffle were created to allow alternating sessions of root canal instrumentation and image acquisition. The teeth were further divided according to 3 different working lengths: 1 mm short of the apical foramen, flush with the apical foramen, and 1 mm beyond the apical foramen. Micrographs of the external apical root surface of each specimen at baseline and after instrumentation up to each working length were examined for the presence of dentinal defects. Inter-examiner agreement was evaluated by using Pearson correlation test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze intragroup and intergroup differences (P < .05).


Inter-examiner agreement was high in all experimental groups (r = 1.0000, r = 0.8885, and r = 0.7867 for WOS, WOP, and WOL, respectively). There was no significant difference in the number of teeth with dentinal defects in the intergroup (P = .8119) or intragroup analyses (P = .9309, .8648, and .4772 for WOS, WOP, and WOL, respectively).


Instrumentation with different WaveOne files up to different working lengths was not associated with the formation of dentinal defects.

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