Influence of Cyclic Flexural Deformation on the Torsional Resistance of Controlled Memory and Conventional Nickel-titanium Instruments

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cyclic deformation on the torsional resistance of controlled memory (CM) nickel-titanium files in comparison with superelastic (SE) instruments with similar geometric and dimensional characteristics.


New 30/.06 HyFlex (HF; Coltene/Whaledent, Inc, Cuyahoga Falls, OH), Typhoon (Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT), RaCe (FKG, La-Chaux De Fonds, Switzerland), and ProTaper Universal F2 instruments (F2; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were assessed. The diameter and pitch length were measured along the active part of the instruments. The number of cycles to failure (Nf) in flexural fatigue and the torsional resistance were evaluated for new files (n = 10). Ten new instruments of each type were fatigued to 3/4 of their fatigue life and then submitted to torsion until rupture. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance (α = .05).


New CM files had a significantly higher Nf when compared with SE instruments; HF exhibited the highest value (P = .001). The mean torque value for F2 was the highest (P = .001). CM files precycled to 3/4 Nf had a significantly lower torque than the new files (HF: P = .003, Typhoon: P = .001), whereas the SE instruments displayed no significant differences (F2: P = .059, RaCe: P = .079).


Cyclic flexural loading significantly reduced the torsional resistance of CM instruments.

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