Why Biphasic? Assessment of the Effect on Cell Proliferation and Expression

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Tricalcium silicate (TCS)–based materials are used in endodontics because they are hydraulic and interact with blood, tissue fluids, and phosphate-based root canal irrigants, resulting in biomineralization. Newer-generation materials are biphasic; calcium phosphate is added to the TCS; thus, the material has 2 cementitious phases. The effect of this addition is not known; thus, the aim of this study was to characterize biphasic cements and assess cellular proliferation and expression.


TCS cement mixed with calcium phosphate monobasic or hydroxyapatite in 1:1 proportion was prepared. The powders and the mixed cements soaked in Hank's balanced salt solution for 28 days were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Ion leaching was investigated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Cellular interaction with material leachate was investigated by exposing human primary osteoblasts to the leachate from the cements. Cell growth and proliferation were determined using methyltetrazolium assay and SEM.


The addition of a calcium phosphate phase to tricalcium silicate changed the material hydration with a reduction in pH and calcium ion release in the leachate when calcium phosphate monobasic was added. No crystalline calcium hydroxide was formed for both biphasic materials. The biphasic cements exhibited a reduction in cell growth and proliferation. SEM of the materials showed heavy carbonation of the material surface caused by processing for microscopy.


The addition of a second cementitious phase results in modification of the hydration characteristics of TCS cement with deterioration of material and biocompatibility properties.

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