Changes of Periodontal Parameters after Apical Surgery: Correlation of Clinical and Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Data

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes of the marginal periodontium 1 year after apical surgery.


Clinical and radiographic (cone-beam computed tomographic) examinations of 54 teeth treated with buccal access flaps for apical surgery were performed at baseline and after 1 year. Clinical assessment included measurements of probing pocket depth, the level of gingival margin (GM), and the width of keratinized tissue. Subsequently, the clinical attachment level (CAL) and the width of the attached gingiva were calculated. On bucco-oral cone-beam computed tomographic sections, the height and thickness of the crestal bone and the thickness of the alveolar bone were measured at different levels.


In general, the calculated mean changes of periodontal tissue and crestal/alveolar bone were only minimal. Significant mean changes included only GM and CAL on midoral aspects and the distance from the cementoenamel junction or restoration margin on midbuccal sites. CAL was further correlated with the thickness of the alveolar bone at 3 mm below the cementoenamel junction or restoration margin. None of the clinically and radiographically calculated mean changes were correlated with sex, biotype, or incision techniques. With regard to age, older patients showed significantly more gingival recession on the buccal aspect compared with younger individuals. Furthermore, mean changes of the midbuccal width of the attached gingiva were positively correlated with the healing outcome, whereas mean changes of the midoral GM and CAL were negatively correlated with the healing outcome.


Within an observation period of 1 year, the marginal periodontium and its underlying bone structures did not suffer from significant changes after apical surgery.

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