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The use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics has increased in recent years. In clinical application of small field of view (FOV) CBCTs, these scans are not reviewed routinely by a radiologist. Studies of large FOV CBCT scans show the prevalence of incidental findings to be greater than 90%. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of missed findings by endodontic residents as compared with a radiologist on small FOV CBCT scans.Two hundred three small FOV CBCTs obtained for endodontic purposes were analyzed by an endodontic resident and a medical radiologist. The reported findings of each practitioner were compared to evaluate for missed incidental findings by the endodontic resident.The radiologist reported abnormalities in 176 of the 203 subjects (87%), with a total of 310 abnormalities reported. The endodontic resident reported abnormalities in 102 of the 203 subjects (50%), with a total of 126 abnormalities reported. The percentage of scans with any abnormality reported by the radiologist was significantly greater than the endodontic resident (P < .001). There was no significant difference between jaw locations in percentage of missed findings for the 3 most common types of finding—rarefying osteitis, sinusitis/mucosal lining thickening, and excess restorative material in the periapical area. Rarefying osteitis was missed significantly less than the other 2 types of findings (P < .001).A radiologist is significantly more likely to identify incidental findings in small FOV CBCT scans than an endodontic resident. Scan location had no significant association with the rate of missed findings.