16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequencing to Evaluate the Effects of 6 Commonly Prescribed Antibiotics

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IntroductionThe rapid antibiotic sensitivity test (RAST) is a novel in-office culture and sensitivity system for endodontic infections. The purpose of this research was to validate the RAST system as a viable, in-office alternative to antibiotic sensitivity testing using turbidity to determine antibiotic sensitivities of endodontic infections.MethodsAspirates were taken from the root canals of 9 necrotic human teeth at the initiation of root canal therapy. These samples were cultured in the RAST medium, and antibiotic sensitivity to 6 antibiotics was tested. Further analysis was performed using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing.ResultsThirty-one bacterial phyla were identified as well as 2 phyla of the kingdom Archaea. Augmentin (Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd, Hyderabad, India) and ampicillin performed identically at 24 hours, inhibiting turbidity in 100% of the samples. At 48 hours in anaerobic conditions, Augmentin outperformed ampicillin by 13%. Ciprofloxacin was the least efficacious antibiotic. At 48 hours, only 22% of anaerobic ciprofloxacin cultures affectively inhibited bacterial growth.ConclusionsThe RAST medium is a viable in-office alternative to antibiotic susceptibility testing in an off-site laboratory. It is able to support the growth of a wide variety of microorganisms in both aerobic and anaerobic environments, and, in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, it led to the identification of a new archaebacterial phylum, Crenarchaeota, as part of the endodontic infection microbiome.

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