Bioactivity of Photoactivated Functionalized Nanoparticles Assessed in Lipopolysaccharide-contaminated Root CanalsIn Vivo

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The persistence of dentin-bound lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in disinfected root canals impedes treatment outcomes of endodontic procedures. This study assessed the effects of photoactivated rose bengal–functionalized chitosan nanoparticles (CSRBnps) on LPS-contaminated root dentin in vivo using an intraosseous implantation model and neotissue formation as a marker.


Fifty human, 3-mm-long root segments with a 1.2-mm canal lumen were divided into 5 groups (n = 10): group 1, canals not contaminated; group 2, canals contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS; group 3, canals contaminated and disinfected with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); group 4, canals contaminated and disinfected with NaOCl and calcium hydroxide; and group 5, canals contaminated and disinfected with NaOCl and CSRBnps (300 μg/mL) with photoactivation (λ = 540 nm, 40 J/cm2). Specimens were implanted into mandibles of guinea pigs, block dissected after 4 weeks, and the canal content evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically. The ingrown neotissue interface (50 μm) with dentin was characterized for fibroblasts, osteoclasts, inflammatory markers, dentin resorption, mineralization, and angiogenesis and dichotomized as type 1 (no inflammation and resorption, indicative of LPS inactivation) or type 2 (inflammation and resorption). The frequency of the observed parameters was analyzed using the Fisher exact test.


The outcome was categorized as type 1 in groups 1 and 5, type 2 in group 2, and mixed type 1 and 2 in groups 3 and 4. The outcomes in groups 1 and 5 (P > .05) differed significantly (P < .05) from those in groups 2, 3, and 4.


Disinfection of LPS-contaminated root canals with photoactivated CSRBnps in vivo supported ingrowth of neotissue without signs of inflammation or resorption, suggestive of effective inactivation of dentin-bound LPS.

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