Foraminal Deformation after Foraminal Enlargement with Rotary and Reciprocating Kinematics: A Scanning Electronic Microscopy Study

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The aim of this study was to evaluate, under scanning electronic microscopy, the morphological aspect of apical foramen after root canal instrumentation with rotary and reciprocating kinematics at 2 different working length determinations.


Sixty mesiobuccal roots of mandibular and maxillary molars presenting with curvature ranging from 30 to 65° were used in this study. The roots were initially scanned with a scanning electronic microscope under ×50 magnification. Roots were divided into 2 different groups (n = 30): group 1 instrumented with rotary kinematics, and group 2 instrumented with reciprocating kinematics. Both groups were instrumented at 2 different working lengths: at the apex and 1 mm beyond the apex. The roots were scanned after the instrumentation at the apex and again after further instrumentation 1 mm beyond the apex. The photomicrographs obtained were assigned to 3 independent evaluators for foraminal deformation assessment through comparison with baseline images. Evaluators were masked with regard to the kinematics and working length used. The Pearson correlation test and Kruskal-Wallis test (method of Dunn) were used for statistical analysis (P < .05).


The Pearson Correlation test showed good agreement among evaluators. Foraminal deformation was observed in instrumentation at the apex and 1 mm beyond the apex with both kinematics (P < .05).


Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that root canal instrumentation at the apex or 1 mm beyond the apex promoted deformation of the major foramen, regardless of the kinematics.

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