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Endodontically treated teeth have an increased risk of biomechanical failure because of significant loss of tooth structure. The biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated teeth restored was evaluated using different extensions of endocrowns inside the pulp chamber by in vitro and 3-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA).Thirty mandibular human molars were endodontically treated. Standardized endocrown preparations were performed, and the teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 10) according to different endocrown extensions inside the pulp chamber: G-5 mm, a 5-mm extension; G-3 mm, a 3-mm extension; and G-1 mm, a 1-mm extension. After adhesive cementation, all specimens were subjected to thermocycling and dynamic loading. The survival specimens were subjected to fracture resistance testing at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min in a universal testing machine. All fractured specimens were subjected to fractography. Data were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test (P < .05). Stress distribution patterns in each group were analyzed using FEA. Qualitative analyses were performed according to the von Mises criterion.After dynamic loading, a survival rate of 100% was observed in all groups. For static loading, statistically significant differences among the groups were observed (P < .05) (G-5 mm = 2008.61 N, G-3 mm = 1795.41 N, and G-1 mm = 1268.12 N). Fractography showed a higher frequency of compression curls for G-5 mm and G-3 mm than for G-1 mm. FEA explained the results of fracture strength testing and fractography.Greater extension of endocrowns inside the pulp chamber provided better mechanical performance.Greater extension of endocrowns led to higher fracture resistance.Greater extension of endocrowns inside the pulp chamber induced lower stresses.Endocrowns could be a conservative restorative alternative.