Effect of Bioceramic Materials on Proliferation and Odontoblast Differentiation of Human Stem Cells from the Apical Papilla

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In regenerative endodontic treatment (RET), practitioners favor the placement of bioceramics as sealing materials over blood clots. It is important to understand the interaction between sealing material and cells in the root canal. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of various bioceramic materials (ProRoot MTA [Dentsply, Tulsa, OK], Biodentine [Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France], and RetroMTA [BioMTA, Seoul, Korea]) as sealing materials in RET for the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs).


SCAPs were seeded at 20,000 cells/well and cultured with soluble agents of testing materials through a transwell culture plate. The proliferation of SCAPs was investigated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 of testing. Alizarin red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used for SCAP differentiation at different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days). The odontoblast genes expressed are dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1, dentin sialophosphoprotein, osteocalcin, and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein, which were used in this study. The SCAPs were cultured in odonto/osteogenic induction medium and also contacted soluble agents from the testing materials.


All 3 tested biomaterials induced SCAP proliferation. The Biodentine, ProRootMTA, and RetroMTA groups showed significant SCAP proliferation on days 7 and 14 compared with the control. In regard to odontoblastic differentiation, only Biodentine showed positive alizarin red staining. The highest expressions of dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein were found on day 21 in the Biodentine group. The expression of osteocalcin was found to be significant on day 7.


Biodentine, ProRootMTA, and RetroMTA can induce SCAP proliferation. Biodentine induced significant SCAP differentiation among the 3 materials.

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