Enhanced Capability of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2–loaded Mesoporous Calcium Silicate Scaffolds to Induce Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells

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Introduction:Calcium silicate bioceramics have been broadly used as reparative or grafting materials with good bioactivity and biocompatibility in dental application. It has been shown that applying a mesoporous process to calcium silicate gives it great potential as a controlled drug delivery system.Methods:The aim of this study was to investigate a novel osteoinductive scaffold by loading bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) to mesoporous calcium silicate (MesoCS) and fabricating it as 3-dimensional scaffolds using fused deposition modeling combined with polycaprolactone.Results:The MesoCS/BMP-2 scaffold showed similar patterns to that of a calcium silicate scaffold in releasing calcium and silicon ions in a simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test for 7 days, but BMP-2 continued releasing from the MesoCS/BMP-2 scaffold significantly more than the CS scaffold from 48 hours to 7 days. Adhesion and proliferation of human dental pulp cells cultured on a MesoCS/BMP-2 scaffold were also more significant than scaffolds without BMP-2 or mesoporous as well as the results of the test on alkaline phosphatase activity.Conclusions:The results support that the novel 3-dimensional–printed MesoCS scaffold performed well as BMP-2 delivery system and would be an ideal odontoinductive biomaterial in regenerative endodontics.

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