Apical Foramen Position in Relation to Proximal Root Surfaces of Human Permanent Teeth Determined by Using a New Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Software

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



The purpose of this study was to determine the position of the apical foramen (AF) in relation to root surfaces of human permanent teeth using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging and novel advanced imaging analysis software (e-Vol DX; CDT Software, Bauru, SP, Brazil).


The AF position was determined on CBCT scans viewed and analyzed using e-Vol DX of 1400 teeth (422 patients) according to the root surface as follows: buccal, mesiobuccal, mesial, mesiolingual/palatal, lingual/palatal, distolingual/palatal, distal, distobuccal, and central. Categoric variables were described as frequencies and percentages. Frequencies were reported with their confidence intervals (95%). Categoric variables were analyzed using the chi-square test with Yates correction. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05.


The most frequent AF position in maxillary anterior teeth was central (46%–60%). The AF in mandibular central incisors was buccal in 44% of the cases. In maxillary first and second premolars, 39.98% and 42.56% of all AFs were central. In maxillary first and second molars, 46.12% and 57.49% of all AFs were central. The most frequent AF position in mandibular first and second premolars was central (42.85% and 50.98%). In mandibular first molars, 48.72% of all AFs were central.


The AF position in human permanent teeth was central in 48.95% and 42.08% of the maxillary and mandibular teeth. CBCT images analyzed by e-Vol DX can be used to determine the true anatomic position of the AF and can be a useful tool for the treatment planning of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic treatments.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles