Vascular Diseases in Birds of Prey

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In birds of prey, vascular disease can be caused by a number of infectious or noninfectious agents and is in all likelihood underdiagnosed. This review attempts to provide a discussion of the available literature regarding vascular diseases in raptors by describing a number of conditions or etiological agents (e.g., atherosclerosis, aneurysms, bacterial and septicemic conditions, thromboembolic disease, and viral, fungal, parasitic, and miscellaneous diseases) and the vascular pathology that may occur with each.

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