Neurological dysfunction is a frequently presenting sign in avian and reptile patients. Clinical neurological signs are rarely pathognomonic, often requiring the attending veterinary surgeon to perform more involved diagnostic tests to achieve a diagnosis. Variations in patient anatomy, physiology and demeanour present unique challenges to the veterinarian evaluating the bird or reptile that has neurological disease signs. Despite these challenges, a well-structured physical and neurological examination can often be accomplished with minimal equipment. A structured neurological examination is essential to formulate an appropriate investigative plan and therapeutic regime for these difficult cases and to provide the owner with an accurate prognosis.