Detection and Phylogeny of Beak and Feather Disease Virus and Avian Polyomavirus in Psittacine Pet Birds in Turkey

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AbstractBeak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and avian polyomavirus (APV) infections cause various health problems in many psittacine species, and may ultimately cause death. The aims of this study were to investigate, for the first time, the presence of BFDV and APV in psittacine birds kept in Turkey by SYBR-Green real-time polymerase chain reaction (SYBR-Green real-time PCR) and to determine the phylogeny of any circulating strains. In this study, 62 samples consisting of feather samples from 35 Melopsittacus undulatus, 16 Psittacus erithacus, 5 Forpus coelestis, 4 Nymphicus hollandicus, 1 Agapornis roseicollis, and 1 Psephotus haematonotus were collected and analyzed for the presence of BFDV-DNA and APV-DNA using SYBR-Green real-time PCR. All birds had plumage defects and 50% were considered clinically depressed. BFDV-DNA and APV-DNA were detected in feather samples of 12 (19.3%) and 9 (14.5%) birds, respectively. Both BFDV-DNA and APV-DNA were detected in 23 (37%) feather samples, from which BFDV-Rep gene and APV-VP1 gene were partially sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Birds suspected to be infected with BFDV and APV should be analyzed by real-time PCR for early diagnosis, and preventive measurements should be applied to reduce viral exposure to healthy birds. The results of this investigation indicate a high frequency of BFDV and APV infections in birds with plumage defects in Turkey. However, strains were similar to those previously reported in other areas of the world.

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