ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF BIOFILM FORMINGSTAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUSISOLATED FROM PIGEON EXTERNAL OCULAR INFECTIONS

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Abstract

Pathogenic microorganisms are commonly associated with external ocular infections in birds. Pathogen virulence factors as well as reduced host defenses resulting from poor living conditions, nutrition, genetics, physiology, hygiene, fever, and age may increase host susceptibility. Staphylococcus species are bacteria known to serve as opportunistic pathogens in eye infections. The changing profile of microorganisms involved in ocular infections and the emergence of acquired microbial resistance dictate the need for investigative studies regarding bacterial profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for external ocular infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus ocular infections in pigeons and to evaluate their biofilm production ability and antibiotic resistance patterns. Twenty pigeons with confirmed eye infections were included in this project. Conjunctival specimens were collected with swabs presoaked in sterile normal saline. Bacterial growth was identified by standard laboratory procedures and susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed by the Kirby-Bauer method. The ability of the isolates to form a biofilm was also assessed using the microtiter plate method. Of the 20 specimens processed, 20% of the pigeons had staphylococcal eye infections. The resistance pattern of these isolates showed that Staphylococcus spp. from pigeon samples were resistant to tetracycline (100%), erythromycin (100%), azithromycin (100%), nalidixic acid (100%), and cefazolin (50%). All of the Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the pigeons were susceptible to gentamycin and furazolidone. The results of the biofilm detection test showed that 75% of the isolates were biofilm producers. In conclusion, biofilm forming S. aureus with multidrug resistance patterns were the most prevalent bacteria isolated from the pigeons examined in this research study.

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